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Recent progress in robotics and artificial intelligence has generated intense debate on the impact of automation on employment. Various commentators have made substantial claims of pending technological unemployment in developed countries due to the displacement of workers by machines. Extrapolating these findings to developing countries is, however, misleading and does not acknowledge structural differences in labour markets. This paper argues that a fresh look at the theory and empirics of the relationship between technology and employment in developing countries is needed. Rather than speculation on the pending invasion of robots, a realistic approach is required, which acknowledges both technological progress in new sectors and the effects of technology on traditional segments of the economy, including agriculture. Policymakers in developing countries such as India do need to recognise the implications of skill-biased technological change for the future of work but, overall, longer-term factors driving labour market outcomes arguably require greater attention.