I study the poverty impacts of plantation-based agricultural growth, focusing on Indonesian palm oil. Using rich new administrative panel data, I exploit exogenous variation arising from Indonesia’s unique institutions and the data’s longitudinal features to identify causal effects. Increasing the palm oil share of land in a district by ten percentage points corresponds to a ten percent reduction in its poverty rate, and a narrowing of the poverty gap. Effects are similar across regions and at the province level. Oil palm expansion tends to be followed by a sustained boost to the value of agricultural output, manufacturing output, and district GDP.