Radical economic reform programs initiated in India have led to a sharp rise in the trend rate of growth for India’s economy. The rapid economic growth and socio-economic developments in India have boosted the country’s consumption of many goods and services, including paper and paperboard. As the rapid economic growth and other developments continue, consumption of paper and paperboard in India will accelerate. The paper industry of India has however not been able fully to meet the consumption needs of its domestic market. Nor is it likely to do so for the foreseeable future when the country’s consumption will be even greater. This is mainly because the industry is beset with problems such as a shortage of domestic supply of papermaking fibre, obsolete technology, and comparatively high cost of production. The situation thus presents a potential opportunity for the forest products industries of Australia to benefit from India’s domestic market for paper and paperboard, papermaking fibres (pulp, recovered paper and pulpwood), and related services.