Recent high rates of economic growth in India have been accompanied by major dietary transitions. Using a nationwide household survey, India Human Development Survey 2005, this paper estimates the impact of such transitions on the incidence of non communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer in India. The estimated deaths from NCDs are projected to rise from 3.78 million in 1990 (40.46 per cent of all deaths) to 7.63 million deaths in 2020 (66.70 per cent of all deaths). The paper also investigates relationships between NCDs and key demographic variables, level of affluence, caste affiliation and geographical concentration of the sample. The paper also models the determinants of these NCDs. The paper concludes with broad policy prescriptions.